Over 20 Years of Research

For more than two decades, Jim Knight and his colleagues at The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning and the Instructional Coaching Group have been studying instructional coaching, communication, and other forms of professional development. “In the early years, our work was about finding our way, finding names for what we did, grabbing what data we could to support what we were doing, and trying to get better at coaching every day. Over time, our instructional coaching model and our methodologies have improved.”

This page has been created to tell the story of instructional coaching through the research we have conducted. On each link, you’ll find (a) a brief description of the research and other publications and how they fit into the evolving story of instructional coaching; (b) a one-page summary of our findings; and (c) whenever possible, the complete text of our paper or a link to the paper so you can read what we did. If you’re especially interested in learning how our understanding evolved, we suggest you start at the bottom of the links and work your way up to the most recent research.

Statement on Conflict of Interest

Knight, D. S., Hock, M., Skrtic, T., Bradley, B., & Knight, J (2018). Evaluation of video-based instructional coaching for middle school teachers: Evidence from a multiple-baseline study. The Educational Forum. 76(1), 50-51.
Knight, J. (2018). A coaching model for classroom management. Educational Leadership, 82: 1-18.

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Sprick, R., & Knight, J. (2018). Involving teachers in schoolwide behavior policy. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 48-53.

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van Nieuwerburgh, C., Knight, J., & Campbell, J. (2018). Coaching in education. In P. Brownell, S. English, & J. Manzi-Sabatine (Eds.), The professional coaches’ desk reference. New York, NY: Springer.

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Knight, J. (2017). The impact cycle: What instructional coaches should do to foster powerful improvements in teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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Knight, D. S., Hock, M., & Knight, J. (2016). Designing instructional coaching. In C. M. Reigeluth, B. J. Beatty, & R. D. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models: A learner-centered paradigm of education, volume IV (pp. 269-286). New York, NY: Routledge.

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Knight, J. (2016). Better conversations: Coach yourself to be more credible, caring, and connected. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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Knight, J. (2015). Three steps to great coaching: A simple but powerful instructional coaching cycle nets results. Journal of Staff Development, 36(1), 10-18.
Knight, J. (2015). Teach to win: Seven success factors for instructional coaching programs. Principle Leadership, 15(7), 24-27.

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van Nieuwerburgh, C., Campbell, J., & Knight, J. (2015). Lesson in progress. Coaching at Work, 10(3), 35-37.

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Knight, J. (2014). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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Bradley, B. A., Harvey, S., Knight, J., Hock, M., Skrtic, T. M., Deshler, D., Knight, D. S., & Brasseur-Hock, I. (2013). Improving instructional coaching to support middle school teachers in the United States. In T. Plomp & N. Nievee (Eds)., Educational design research – Part B: Introduction and illustrative cases (pp. 299-318). Enschede, The Netherlands: SLO.

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Knight, J. (2013). High-impact instruction: A framework for great teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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Knight, J., & van Nieuwerburgh, C. (2012). Instructional coaching: A focus on practice. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 5(2), 100-112.
Knight, J., Bradley, B. A., Hock, M., Skrtic, T. A., Knight, D., Brasseur-Hock, I., … Hatton, C. (2012). Record, replay, reflect: Videotaped lessons accelerate learning for teachers and coaches. Journal of Staff Development, 33(2), 18-23.
Knight, J. (2011). Unmistakable impact: A partnership approach for dramatically inproving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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Beglau, M., Hare, J.C., Foltos, L., Gann, K., James, J., Jobe, H., Knight, J., Smith, B. (2011). Technology, coaching, and community: Power partners for improved professional development. Paper presented at the annual conference and expo of the International Society for Technology in Education, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Fullan, M., & Jim Knight, J. (2011). Coaches as system leaders. Educational Leadership, 69(2),18-22.

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Knight, J. (2011). What good coaches do. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 18-22.
Knight, J., Cornett, J., Skrtic, T., Kennedy, M., Novosel, L., & Mitchell, B. (2010, April). Understanding attributes of effective coaches. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, Colorado.

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Knight, J. (2009). What can we do about teacher resistance? Phi Delta Kappan, 7(90), 508-513.
Cornett, J., & Knight, J. (2009). Studying the impact of instructional coaching. Presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, California.
Knight, J. (2008). Coaching: Approaches and perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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Cornett, J., & Knight, J. (2008). Research on coaching: An overview of the literature. In Knight, J. (2008). Coaching: Approaches and perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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Knight, J. (2007). 5 key points to building a coaching program. Journal of Staff Development, 28(1), 26-31.

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Knight, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: Progress through partnership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W., & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

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Knight, J. (2006). Instructional coaching: Eight factors for realizing better classroom teaching. The School Administrator, 63(4), 36-40.
Knight, J. (2005). A primer on instructional coaches. Principal Leadership, 5(9), 16- 21.
Knight, J. (2004). Instructional coaches make progress through partnership: Intensive support can improve teaching. Journal of Staff Development, 25(2), 32-37.
Knight, J. (2003). Michael Fullan. An interview. Stratenotes, 12(3).

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Knight, J. (2002). Crossing boundaries: What constructivists can teach intensive-explicit instructors and vice versa.
Knight, J. (2000). Another damn thing we’ve got to do: Teacher perceptions of professional development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Knight, J. (1999). Partnership learning: Putting conversation at the heart of professional development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, California.
Knight, J. (1998). Do schools have learning disabilities?
Knight, J. (1998). Learning consulting: Translating research into practice. Stratenotes. 7(1) 1-3.

This paper, published in our University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning publication Stratenotes, offers some very preliminary thoughts about the instructional coach as a translator of research. It explores the questions: What is a translator?  And, if “learning consultants” translate research into practice, what does that mean for what they do? This is the first document I published, my early notes on what coaching is and what coaches could do.

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Jim Knight

Instructional Coaching Group

Jim Knight, Senior Partner of ICG, is a research associate at the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.